Stone in the kidney develops when minerals in the urine like calcium, oxalate, and sometimes uric acid – crystallize become very concentrated. If the stones developed are small, they pass through the body causing some pain, but the bigger ones remain in the body and cause a lot of pain. They can even block the urinary tract. It is a common disease in adults but also found in children of all ages. Recently, we have found that there is an increase in stone disease among children due to lifestyle and dietary factors. Genetic factors also can cause stone disease in a child. Children with urinary tract infection may develop it due to bacteria.
Types of Stone disease
It means that stone disease can build up anywhere in the urinary system. An individual affected with stone disease finds it difficult to pass urine smoothly.
The stone disease shows forth very fewer symptoms of a disease. If the stones are very small there may not be any symptoms. At the same time, if the stones are bigger, they affect walls of the kidney, urinary tract or bladder and the following symptoms may occur:
- Painful urination
- Bloody urine
- Pain in the back or lower abdomen
- Nausea and vomiting
- Urine leakage
- Interrupted urine flow
The doctor may order for urine, blood and imaging test to determine stone disease in a person.
A doctor may ask patients to adjust their diet so as to increase water intake. Patients may have to avoid some specific food items which contribute to stone disease. There are also medications to reduce elements in the urine that cause this disease. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy is conducted to break stones into small pieces and make them pass through the urinary tract. A physician may also conduct Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy, Ureteroscopic stone removal or Cystolitholapaxy to remove stones.
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