Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is a surgical procedure performed to treat kidney failure. The kidneys are the two beans-shaped organs in the human body that filters waste from the blood and removes it from the body through your urine. Kidneys also make hormones that control blood pressure and red blood cells. If the kidney stops functioning, harmful levels of fluid and waste accumulate in your body, which can lead to kidney failure.
A kidney transplant may be an option if both the kidneys have stopped working entirely. Kidney transplantation is considered the best option of treatment for patients with final-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is one of the most common transplant operations performed in a short duration of time. Compared to the cost of lifelong dialysis, renal transplantation is very cost-effective.
A person can receive a kidney from:
- Living related donor – It can be parents, own children or relatives.
- Living unrelated donor – It can be a friend or spouse of the patient.
- Deceased donor – The patient can receive a kidney from a recently dead person, but have no known chronic renal disease.
A kidney separated from the body can stay healthy in the cold water for forty-eight hours and during this time physician can conduct some tests to find out whether doner’s kidney matches to recipient’s body. If blood and tissue type matches, it can be transplanted successfully.
Once the patient meets the doctor, she or he is examined by the transplant team to assess whether she or he is physically a good candidate for a kidney transplant.
Renal transplantation surgery takes approximately three hours. Within this short duration, the patient gets a healthy kidney transplanted. The artery and vein of the new organ are connected to the patient’s artery and vein. The new kidney starts to purify the blood as soon the blood flow is established through it. There are absolute monitoring and medication procedures to prevent rejection of this new organ by the recipient’s body.
Under certain medical conditions, the doctor may not conduct renal transplantation on the patient. These conditions include TB, heart, lung, and liver diseases. Recent history of cancer also prevents one from a renal transplant. Reactions to medications and problems of breathing, bleeding, and infection may be the possible risks associated with renal transplant and anaesthesia given at this time.
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